Glossary

Angus Terms Angus Herd Improvement Records (AHIR): A comprehensive program that provides breeders who enroll and submit performance measures with decision-support tools from which to make better, more informed breeding decisions.

Certified Angus Beef LLC (CAB): The American Angus Association’s branded-beef program that identifies animals meeting live and carcass specifications from harvest through retail.

Breeding Terms Artificial Insemination (AI): Implanting semen into the reproductive tract of a cow by a means other than natural service by a bull.

Body Condition Score: A score on a scale of 1 to 9, reflecting the amount of fat reserves in a cow’s body, where 1 = very thin, and 9 = extremely fat.

Calving: The process of giving birth to a calf, sometimes called parturition.

Commercial: Animals or herds that are not registered.

Crossbred: A breeding program that involves the mating of at least two different breeds.

Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs): An estimate of how future progeny are expected to perform in each of the traits listed (birth, weaning, yearling, carcass, etc.); EPDs are expressed in units of measure for the trait, either plus or minus, and are only comparable within the same breed.

Gestation: pregnancy; The period a cow carries a developing calf in her uterus, usually nine months.

Health certificate or health paper: A certificate of health provided by a veterinarian upon the completion of a physical examination of the animal. Required to haul the animal out-of-state.

Heat: Also know as estrus-that regularly occurring period of ovulation (occurs every 18-24 days in cattle) and the best time for breeding.

Lactation: The production of milk by a cow; begins after calving and concludes after weaning.

Purebred: An animal whose sire and dam are of the same breed.

Registered: An animal that is recorded in the herd book of its respective breed association.

Registration paper: A certificate proving an animal is registered with the American Angus Association; contains animal’s name, registration number, owner, ancestral pedigree, and any available performance information, including EPDs and $Value indexes.

Seed Stock: Registered or commercial breeding stock.

Tattoo: An identification method that is placed in the ear and helps breeders and the American Angus Association maintain accurate parentage and production records of Angus cattle. Tattoos should be the same in each ear and should match the animal’s registration paper.

Weaning: Withholding a calf from its mother and substituting other nourishment for the mother’s milk.

Carcass Terms Quality grade: Prime, Choice, Select, Standard, Utility, Cutter and Canner are the various USDA quality grades; maturity and marbling are the two factors which determine them; the quality grade reflects the eating quality of the beef – tenderness, juiciness and flavor.

Yield grade: Reflects the percentage of closely trimmed retail cuts from the round, loin, rib, and chuck; yield grades are 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 with 1 representing the highest percentage of lean cuts, and 5 representing the lowest.

Performance Terms Accuracy (Acc): Value indicating how reliable EPDs are for predicting actual progeny differences. Younger animals will have low Acc values. These values may change as progeny data becomes available.

Adjusted Weaning Weight (Adj WW): Actual weaning weight adjusted to 205 days of age and to a mature dam equivalent.

Average Daily Gain (ADG): Weight gain for a specified period of time divided by the number of days in that period.

Frame score: A value determined by hip height and age.

Ratio: Expression of an animal’s individual performance relative to the contemporary group average for any trait. Ratios are methods of ranking among contemporaries, where 100 is average, 99.9 or less is below average and

100.1 or greater is above average for a particular trait.

Rotational Crossbreeding: A breeding schematic in which a sire will be used in a two-or-three-breed rotational system where the females are bred to the breed contributing the smallest portion of genes.

Terminal Crossbreeding: A management scenario in which a sire will be used in a breeding program where no females will be kept for replacements. Emphasis should be placed on growth and carcass traits.

Weight per Day of Age (WDA): Weight of an individual divided by days of age.

Showing & Fitting Terms

Adhesive products:

For the leg – an adhesive designed for setting leg hair. Different names include Hamm’s Leg Adhesive, Sullivan’s Formula 1 or Prime Time. Formula 1 leaves a natural and clear look that you can comb through with ease. Hair clips off easy without clogging clipper blades. Prime Time is Sullivan’s medium-hold adhesive, ideal for medium to thinner types of hair.

Tail adhesive – highest-strength adhesive most show-supply companies make.

Blocking chute: A metal or aluminum structure with a headgate used to restrain animal when fitting or clipping.

Blower: An electric unit used to dry an animal or to blow out dirt before fitting.

Clipper blades: Metal scissor-type blades installed on clippers used for shearing animals. There are various types and sizes for different types of hair and brands and types of clippers.

Curry comb: A type of comb used to remove mud and other dirt from an animal’s hair coat.

Fill: The appearance of fullness; The morning of a show, extra beet pulp, cottonseed hulls or alfalfa may be fed to increase an animal’s appearance of fullness. Water may be offered to achieve the same effect.

Flat-head clippers: Clippers used to shear the heads and bellies of an animal (closer clipping).

Hocus-Pocus: A show-day adhesive-removal product. When sprayed on and brushed through hair containing adhesive, Hocus Pocus removes all traces of adhesive. Hocus-Pocus can be washed out immediately or left in for several days.

Neck rope: Nylon ropes used to keep animal straight in stall and acts as a second halter to restrain animal if its halter becomes untied.

Repelex: A fly-repellent used in post-washing dip poured over the animal’s back; can be mixed with water and used as fly spray.

Rope halter: Nylon halter available in a variety of colors. Rope halters are used on a daily basis when working with show cattle.

Scotch comb: Available with wooden or aluminum handles used to comb hair into place.

Sheep-head clippers: A type of clipper used in body clipping an animal.

Show box: Wooden, aluminum or galvanized boxes used to store show products and other tools needed at a show.

Show halter: A leather halter used only when showing an animal.

Show Sheen: A spray-on product; Show Sheen is used to set hair and resists stains and dust.

Zoom Bloom: A show-day product used to set hair. After applying, comb in and blow hair with electric groom to add volume and body.